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Acknowledgements &
Supporting Evidence

The following therapists provided valuable information and/or feedback on program content, and generously shared their resources/knowledge:

Dr Annie McCluskey, Honorary Senior Lecturer, Discipline of Occupational Therapy, The University of Sydney & The StrokeEd Collaboration, Sydney, Australia.


Dr Sarah Blanton, Associate Professor, Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.


Dr Arlette Doussoulin, Assistant Professor, Pediatric and Surgery, University de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.


Dr Praveen Kumar, Senior Lecturer, Physiotherapy, University of West England, Bristol, United Kingdom.


Jill Kings, Occupational Therapist, Clinical Director, Neural Pathways, Gateshead, United Kingdom.


Dr ​Jill Whitall, PhD, FNAK, Professor Emerita, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Science, USA. 

The following occupational therapy candidates at Australian Catholic University provided valuable contribution to the development of written and video resources:

 -  Iris Ly

 -  Brigitte Mcintosh

 -  Elizabeth Shaw

 -  Jacqueline Cavalletto

We also thank the CIMT participants and their supporters who have allowed their photos to be used for our project and who provided valuable feedback on program content and resource development. We acknowledge the pioneering work of Dr Edward Taub and his team at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, in developing the concept of CIMT. 

References & Useful Literature

Practical Guide for CIMT:

Meharg, A. and Kings, J. (2015). How to do Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A practical guide. United Kingdom, Harrison Training. Accessible from: 

Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management:



Systematic reviews of CIMT:

Kwakkel, G., Veerbeek, J. M., van Wegen, E. E., & Wolf, S. L. (2015). Constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke. Lancet Neurology, 14(2), 224-234. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70160-7.

Corbetta, D., Sirtori, V., Castellini, G., Mjoa, L., & Gatti, R. (2015). Constraint-induced movement therapy for upper extremities in people with stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004433.pub3

Fleet, A., Page, S. J., MacKay-Lyons, M., & Boe, S. G. (2014). Modified constraint-induced movement therapy for upper extremity recovery post stroke: what is the evidence? Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 21(4), 319-331. doi:10.1310/tsr2104-319.

Comparison of CIMT to other dose matched interventions:


Stevenson, T., Thalman, L., Christie, H., & Poluha, W. (2012). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Compared to Dose-Matched Interventions for Upper-Limb Dysfunction in Adult Survivors of Stroke: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis. Physiotherapy Canada, 64(4), 397-413. doi:10.3138/ptc.2011-24.

Papers describing the CIMT protocol and it’s components:

Morris, D., Taub, E., & Mark, V. W. (2006). Constraint-induced movement therapy: characterising the intervention protocol. Europa Medicophysica, 42(3), 257-268.

Taub, E., & Morris, D. M. (2001). Constraint-induced movement therapy to enhance recovery after stroke. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 3(4), 279-286.

Key clinical trials (CIMT delivered face to face):

Wolf, S. L., Thompson, P. A., Winstein, C. J., Miller, J. P., Blanton, S. R., Nichols-Larsen, D. S., . . . Sawaki, L. (2010). The EXCITE stroke trial: comparing early and delayed constraint-induced movement therapy. Stroke, 41(10), 2309-2315. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.588723.

Wolf, S. L., Winstein, C. J., Miller, J. P., Taub, E., Uswatte, G., Morris, D., . . . Investigators, E. (2006). Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 296(17), 2095-2104. doi:

Lin, K., Wu, C., Liu, J., Chen, Y., & Hsu, C. (2009). Constraint-induced therapy versus dose-matched control intervention to improve motor ability, basic/extended daily functions, and quality of life in stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 23(2). doi:10.1177/1545968308320642.

Lin, K., Wu, C., Wei, T., Lee, C., & Liu, J. (2007). Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on reach-to-grasp movements and functional performance after chronic stroke: a randomized controlled study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(12), 1075-1086. doi: 10.1177/0269215507079843.

Doussoulin, A., Rivas, C., Rivas, R., & Saiz, J. (2018). Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in the recovery of upper extremity function affected by a stroke: a single-blind randomized parallel trial-comparing group versus individual intervention. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 41(1), 35-40. doi:10.1097/mrr.0000000000000257.

Thrane, G., Askim, T., Stock, R., Indredavik, B., Gjone, R., Erichsen, A., & Anke, A. (2015). Efficacy of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Early Stroke Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Multisite Trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. doi:10.1177/1545968314558599.

Kwakkel, G., Winters, C., van Wegen, E., Nijland, R., van Kuijk, A., Visser-Meily, A., . . . Meskers, C. (2016). Effects of unilateral upper limb training in two distinct prognostic groups early after stroke: The EXPLICIT-Stroke randomized clinical trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 30(9), 804-816.

Papers exploring mitt wear component:

Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D., Barman, J., & Crago, J. (2006). Contribution of the shaping and restraint components of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy to treatment outcome. NeuroRehabilitation, 21(2), 147-156.

Brogårdh, C., & Lexell, J. (2010). A 1-year follow-up after shortened constraint-induced movement therapy with and without mitt poststroke. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 91(3), 460-464 465p. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2009.11.009.

Brogårdh, C., Vestling, M., & Sjölund, B. H. (2009). Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint: a randomized controlled study with independent observers. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 41(4), 231-236 236p. doi:10.2340/16501977-0312.

Papers exploring the transfer package:


Taub, E., Uswatte, G., Mark, V. W., Morris, D. M., Barman, J., Bowman, M. H., . . . Bishop-McKay, S. (2013). Method for enhancing real-world use of a more affected arm in chronic stroke: Transfer package of constraint-induced movement therapy. Stroke, 44(5), 1383-1388. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000559.

Papers describing other remote models of CIMT delivery:


Smith, M. A., & Tomita, M. R. (2020). Combined effects of Telehealth and Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Individuals with Chronic Hemiparesis. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 12(1), 51–62.

Lum, P. S., Taub, E., Schwandt, D., Postman, M., Hardin, P., & Uswatte, G. (2004). Automated Constraint-Induced Therapy Extension (AutoCITE) for movement deficits after stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 41(3A), 249-258. doi:10.1682/jrrd.2003.06.0092.

Hughes, A.-M., Meagher, C., & Burridge, J. (2017). Arm Rehabilitation at Home for People with Stroke: Staying Safe: Encouraging Results from the Co-designed LifeCIT Programme. In I. Kollak (Ed.), Safe at Home with Assistive Technology (pp. 59-79). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42890-1_5.

Gauthier, L. V., Kane, C., Borstad, A., Strahl, N., Uswatte, G., Taub, E., . . . Mark, V. (2017). Video Game Rehabilitation for Outpatient Stroke (VIGoROUS): protocol for a multi-center comparative effectiveness trial of in-home gamified constraint-induced movement therapy for rehabilitation of chronic upper extremity hemiparesis. BMC Neurology, 17(1), 109. doi:10.1186/s12883-017-0888-0.

Carer experiences during CIMT:

Blanton, S., Scheibe, D. C., Rutledge, A. H., Regan, B., O’Sullivan, C. S., & Clark, P. C. (2019). Family-Centered Care During Constraint-Induced Therapy After Chronic Stroke: A Feasibility Study. Rehabilitation Nursing Journal, 44(6), 349-357. doi:10.1097/rnj.0000000000000197.


CIMT implementation:

Jolliffe, L., Hoffmann, T., Churilov, L., & Lannin, N. A. (2020). What is the feasibility and observed effect of two implementation packages for stroke rehabilitation therapists implementing upper limb guidelines? A cluster controlled feasibility study. BMJ Open Quality, 9(2), e000954. doi:10.1136/bmjoq-2020-000954.

McCluskey, A., Massie, L., Gibson, G., Pinkerton, L., & Vandenberg, A. (2020). Increasing the delivery of upper limb constraint-induced movement therapy post-stroke: A feasibility implementation study. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 67(3), 237-249. doi:10.1111/1440-1630.12647.

Christie, L.J.McCluskey, A. and Lovarini, M. (2021). Implementation and sustainability of upper limb constraint-induced movement therapy programs for adults with neurological conditions: an international qualitative study. Journal of Health Organization and Management, Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print.

CIMT in different patient populations:


Traumatic brain injury:


Morris, D. M., Shaw, S. E., Mark, V. W., Uswatte, G., Barman, J., & Taub, E. (2006). The influence of neuropsychological characteristics on the use of CI therapy with persons with traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 21(2), 131-137. PMID: 16917159. 


Shaw, S. E., Morris, D., Uswatte, G., McKay, S., Meythaler, J. M., & Taub, E. (2005). Constraint-induced movement therapy for recovery of upper-limb function following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 42(6), 769-778. doi: 10.1682/jrrd.2005.06.0094.


Cerebral palsy with hemiplegia:


Fonseca Junior, P. R., Filoni, E., Setter, C. M., Berbel, A. M., Fernandes, A. O., & Moura, R. C. d. F. (2017). Constraint-induced movement therapy of upper limb of children with cerebral palsy in clinical practice: systematic review of the literature. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, 24, 334-346.

Chiu, H. C., & Ada, L. (2016). Constraint-induced movement therapy improves upper limb activity and participation in hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy, 62(3), 130-137. doi:10.1016/j.jphys.2016.05.013.

Hoare, B. J., Wallen, M. A., Thorley, M. N., Jackman, M. L., Carey, L. M., & Imms, C. (2019). Constraint‐induced movement therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(4). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004149.pub3.

Congenital hemiplegia:


Sakzewski, L., Ziviani, J., Abbott, D. F., Macdonell, R. A. L., Jackson, G. D., & Boyd, R. N. (2011). Randomized trial of constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training on activity outcomes for children with congenital hemiplegia. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 53(4), 313-320. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03859.x.


Parkinson’s disease:


Lee, K. S., Lee, W. H., & Hwang, S. (2011). Modified constraint-induced movement therapy improves fine and gross motor performance of the upper limb in Parkinson disease. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 90(5), 380-386. doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e31820b15cd.


Multiple Sclerosis:


Mark, V. W., Taub, E., Uswatte, G., Morris, D. M., Cutter, G. R., Adams, T. L., . . . McKay, S. (2018). Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis. Part 1: Effects on Real-World Function. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 32(3), 223-232. doi:10.1177/1545968318761050.

Barghi, A., Allendorfer, J. B., Taub, E., Womble, B., Hicks, J. M., Uswatte, G., . . . Mark, V. W. (2018). Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis. Part 2: Effect on White Matter Integrity. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 32(3), 233-241. doi:10.1177/1545968317753073.


Focal hand dystonia:


Candia, V., Elbert, T., Altenmüller, E., Rau, H., Schäfer, T., & Taub, E. (1999). Constraint-induced movement therapy for focal hand dystonia in musicians. Lancet, 353(9146), 42. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)74865-0.

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